What can HIE Cause?

The outcomes of children with HIE are wide-ranging - anywhere from unaffected through loss. No two children will be the same, even with a similar injury pattern. The impact of each child's injury is different based on multiple factors, including what parts of the brain were affected and how damaging the insult was to the brain, and how each child's brain moves forward from injury through neuroplasticity.


Here is a look at some of the possible conditions and outcomes children with HIE can have any of the below list. 

When we asked HIE parents to define the list as something more manageable, outcomes were defined a bit more simply. HIE can affect senses (hearing loss, CVI , SPD, ASD), feeding (G-tube and digestive intolerance), brain seizures (Epilepsy and Infantile Spasms), movement disorders (Cerebral Palsy), developmental delays, Microcephaly, and central responses like breathing and swallowing.

Neuro-Muscular System

• Movement Disorders

o Dystonia

o Dyskinesia

o Dyspraxia

• Cerebral Palsy

• Global Developmental Delay

• Fine Motor Delay

• Gross Motor Delay

• Seizure Disorders

o Epilepsy

o Infantile Spasms

o Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

• Microcephaly

• Dysautonomia

• Sensory Disorders

• Sensory Processing Disorder

• Hearing Loss

• Vision Issues

o Cortical Visual Impairment

o Delayed Visual Maturation

o Impaired Vision/Vision Loss

o Nystagmus

o Strabismus

• Speech/Swallow Disorders

o Apraxia

o Dysphagia

o Speech delay

o Oral aversion

o Trismus/lockjaw

o Vocal Cord Paralysis

• Retained Reflexes

• Learning Disabilities/Cognitive Impairment

• High/Low Muscle Tone (hypertonia or hypotonia)

Respiratory System

• Chronic Lung Disease

• Larygomalacia

Endocrine System

• Hypo/Hyper Thyroid

• Precocious Puberty

Urinary System

• Kidney or Renal Disorder/Disease/Failure

• Vesicoureteral Reflux

• Neurogenic Bladder

Skeletal System

• Renal Osteodystrophy

Digestive System

• Failure to Thrive

• Feeding Tube Dependent

• Gastroparesis

• Reflux

o GERD/Gord

o Sandifer’s Syndrome


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