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Hypoxic (Lack of Oxygen)
Ischemic (Restricting Bloodflow)
Encephalopathy (Affecting the Brain)
When the brain is deprived of oxygen, brain cells are injured. Some may recover, some may die. The most common causes of oxygen deprivation to the brain are low levels of oxygen in the blood or a reduced flow of oxygen to the brain. This can happen in a variety of ways prior to birth, during the birth process, after birth, and during childhood.
There are two stages of injury with HIE: The first stage happens immediately after the initial oxygen deprivation. The second occurs as normal oxygenated blood flow resumes to the brain. This is called “reperfusion injury” and occurs as toxins are released from the damaged cells. The “window of opportunity” is when interventions have been shown to decrease death and disability. However, we also know there are many children who fall outside of the “standard”, and may appear clinically sound and rebounded that develop neonatal seizures and get diagnosed with HIE after an initial window.
Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy is considered a subset of neonatal encephalopathy. Neonatal HIE is the most common cause of neonatal encephalopathy. Other non-HIE causes of neonatal encephalopathy may be caused by infections, a specific genetic syndrome, metabolic syndromes or diagnoses. HIE can concurrently happen with other causes of NE, too. HIE may be difficult to give a confirmed diagnosis in the first few hours or days, but it is more clearly understood as imaging, clinical presentation, etc. are understood.
Different alternate diagnoses include perinatal encephalopathy, perinatal asphyxia, neonatal encephalopathy or birth asphyxia.
What causes HIE?
How is HIE diagnosed?
Diagnosis of HIE in a newborn baby is made using a few different diagnostic tools, in combination. Physical exam, APGAR scores, the Sarnat Scale, which is based upon how the baby appears after birth or injury, and presentation at the hospital, in addition to diagnostic tools and imaging such as EEG, ultrasound and MRI, and checking cord blood gas levels.
The baby or child may present with the following symptoms:
Depending on certain criteria, therapeutic hypothermia, or cooling, has been shown to reduce death and disability in many cases. The cooling treatment is the most widely known and used treatment, but there are other treatments being trialed around the world. Cooling can be done on the whole body, or through a cooling cap placed on the head. The baby may also need other medical intervention to support their organs or to treat seizures as they recover.
Babies and children who experience HIE may qualify for early intervention therapy services, after discharge, such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, feeding and swallowing therapy, vision therapy and more.
How many babies are diagnosed with HIE?
About two to three in every 1,000 full-term births will be affected by HIE every year, which means thousands of babies and children experience HIE every year. We are on a mission to ensure none of their families face HIE alone, and to improve the quality of life for this community.
Levels of HIE Explained
The outcomes of children with HIE are wide-ranging – anywhere from unaffected through loss. No two children will be the same, even with a similar injury pattern. The impact of each child’s injury is different based on multiple factors, including what parts of the brain were affected and how damaging the insult was to the brain, and how each child’s brain moves forward from injury through neuroplasticity.
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